sejarah kereta api di dunia

Posted By naturelle Friday, February 22, 2013 3:38:02 AM
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naturelle
 Posted Friday, February 22, 2013 3:38:02 AM
Tokoh Desa

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Sejarah Kereta Api pertama di Dunia

Sejarah Kereta Api Pertama di Dunia

kereta api, sejarah munculnya kereta api yang dibawa bersama teknologi mesin uap, yang dikembangkan pada awal abad ke-18, dan kuda-atau gerobak bertenaga manusia-cara yang digunakan dalam pertambangan sejak abad ke-16. The British engineer Richard Trevithick (1771–1833) was the first to build a steam locomotive to run on such wagon-ways (1804); other steam-locomotive pioneers, also British, were John Blenkinsop (1783–1831), William Hedley (1779–1843), and George Stephenson (1781–1848). Insinyur Britania Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) adalah orang pertama yang membangun lokomotif uap untuk berjalan di kereta-cara seperti itu (1804); lain-lokomotif uap pionir, juga Inggris, adalah John Blenkinsop (1783-1831), William Hedley ( 1779-1843), dan George Stephenson (1781-1848). Early locomotives were handicapped by the weakness of the available railway track: it was not until technical advances were made in track construction that the railway became truly practical. Awal lokomotif cacat oleh kelemahan rel kereta api yang tersedia: hal itu tidak sampai kemajuan teknis dibuat dalam konstruksi jalur kereta api yang menjadi benar-benar praktis.

The Stockton and Darlington Railway (1825) was the first to carry both freight and passengers. Yang Stockton dan Darlington Kereta Api (1825) adalah orang pertama yang membawa kedua barang dan penumpang. In 1830 it was followed by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the line that heralded the beginning of the railway era using Stephenson's Rocket as locomotive. Pada tahun 1830 itu diikuti oleh Liverpool dan Manchester Kereta Api, baris yang menandakan awal era kereta api dengan menggunakan Stephenson's Rocket sebagai lokomotif. There followed a period of rapid expansion and development of railways throughout the world. Ada mengikuti periode ekspansi cepat dan pengembangan kereta api di seluruh dunia. By 1847, 250,000 navvies were employed in railway construction in the UK, and in the USA, where railroad companies were the main agents of westward expansion, nearly 34,000 km (21,100 miles) of railway were constructed between 1850 and 1860. Pada 1847, 250.000 navvies yang bekerja dalam pembangunan rel di Inggris, dan di Amerika Serikat, di mana perusahaan kereta api agen utama dari ekspansi ke barat, hampir 34.000 km (21.100 mil) dari rel kereta api dibangun antara tahun 1850 dan 1860. By the end of the century railway networks covered Europe, the USA, Canada, and parts of imperial Russia. Pada akhir abad ke jaringan kereta api menutupi Eropa, Amerika Serikat, Kanada, dan bagian dari kekaisaran Rusia. In Europe cheap and easy travel helped to break down provincial differences, while in Switzerland and the Mediterranean the holiday industry steadily developed. Di Eropa perjalanan murah dan mudah membantu untuk memecahkan perbedaan provinsi, sementara di Swiss dan Mediterania industri liburan terus dikembangkan. Railways were important for both sides in the American Civil War, for moving troops and supplies. Kereta api itu penting bagi kedua belah pihak dalam Perang Saudara Amerika, untuk memindahkan pasukan dan persediaan. The first electric locomotive was demonstrated in Berlin in 1879. Lokomotif listrik pertama telah didemonstrasikan di Berlin pada 1879. Electric traction was commercially applied first on suburban and metropolitan lines, but was quickly adopted for underground railways. Electric traksi adalah diterapkan secara komersial pertama di pinggiran kota dan metropolitan baris, tetapi dengan cepat diadopsi untuk kereta api bawah tanah. One of the earliest users of electric locomotives on mainline routes was Italy, where a line was opened in 1902. Salah satu pengguna awal lokomotif listrik pada rute utama adalah Italia, di mana garis dibuka pada tahun 1902.

The railways proved strategically important on all fronts in World War I. After the war many railway companies grouped together as national railway systems or large geographical concerns. Ternyata kereta api penting secara strategis di semua bidang dalam Perang Dunia I. Setelah perang banyak perusahaan kereta api dikelompokkan bersama sebagai sistem kereta api nasional atau besar masalah geografis. In the late 1930s the steam locomotive reached its zenith, but electric locomotives were already in widespread use in Europe and Scandinavia, and main-line diesel locomotives were coming into service in the USA. Pada akhir 1930-an lokomotif uap mencapai puncaknya, tapi lokomotif listrik sudah digunakan secara luas di Eropa dan Skandinavia, dan main-line diesel lokomotif yang masuk ke layanan di Amerika Serikat. In this period road and air transport began to challenge the railways.Dalam periode ini jalan dan transportasi udara mulai menantang kereta api.

Following World War II there was a period of reconstruction: new steam locomotives were introduced in the UK and mainland Europe, and new diesels were also under test. Setelah Perang Dunia II ada periode rekonstruksi: lokomotif uap yang baru diperkenalkan di Inggris dan daratan Eropa, dan mesin diesel baru juga yang diuji. Steam locomotive production ended in the USA in the 1950s, and in Europe in the 1960s, and, as the competition from roads increased, there were major cutbacks in the rail network. Produksi lokomotif uap berakhir di Amerika Serikat pada 1950-an, dan di Eropa pada 1960-an, dan, seperti kompetisi dari jalan meningkat, ada penghematan besar dalam jaringan rel. In Japan in 1964, the high-speed shinkansen or 'bullet' trains began operation, running on specially developed track at speeds of up to 210 km/h (130 mph). Di Jepang pada tahun 1964, kecepatan tinggi Shinkansen atau 'peluru' kereta mulai beroperasi, berjalan pada jalur khusus dikembangkan pada kecepatan hingga 210 km / h (130 mph). At around the same period experiments began using ground guidance-systems other than conventional track. Pada sekitar periode yang sama eksperimen mulai menggunakan sistem bimbingan tanah selain jalur konvensional.

In the last quarter of the 20th century, railway construction worldwide started to grow again, though in developed countries few new lines were built. Pada kuartal terakhir abad ke-20, pembangunan kereta api di seluruh dunia mulai tumbuh lagi, meskipun di negara maju beberapa jalur baru dibangun. In Europe, notably in France and more recently Germany, other high-speed trains have been developed. Di Eropa, terutama di Perancis dan Jerman yang lebih baru-baru ini, lain kereta api berkecepatan tinggi telah dikembangkan. There has also been a considerable investment in commuter trains and light railway rapid-transit systems to ease congestion on roads and pollution.Ada juga investasi yang cukup besar di komuter kereta api dan kereta api ringan sistem transit cepat untuk mengurangi kemacetan di jalan dan polusi. A new development in Jakarta, Indonesia, is the Aeromovel, a light, engineless train powered by compressed air blown through a duct below the track.Sebuah perkembangan baru di Jakarta, Indonesia, adalah Aeromovel, ringan, powered by engineless kereta udara tekan ditiup melalui saluran di bawah rel. New underground railways have been built in some of the newer large cities (for example, the Metro in Mexico City), while in China the railway network is growing at a rate of some 1000 km (600 miles) per year. Kereta api bawah tanah baru telah dibangun di beberapa kota-kota besar yang lebih baru (misalnya, Metro di Mexico City), sedangkan di jaringan kereta api Cina tumbuh dengan laju sekitar 1000 km (600 mil) per tahun. The Channel Tunnel rail link between England and France began to operate in 1994.Terowongan Channel rel antara Inggris dan Perancis mulai beroperasi pada tahun 1994. Following a model adopted by Sweden in the early 1990s, Britain privatized its rail network in the mid-1990s. Mengikuti model yang diadopsi oleh Swedia pada awal 1990-an, Britania diprivatisasi dengan jaringan kereta api pada pertengahan 1990-an.


Lifes likes a wheel, thats why it's called wheel of life *Cheers
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 Posted Wednesday, March 6, 2013 5:45:56 PM
Leluhur

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dari tenaga uap samapi kereta listrik, teknologi terus berkembang

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